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This page about gout studies and other references used for the Atkins diet section was last reviewed, or updated, on 11 April 2015
Gout and the Atkins diet pages' References
If you want to read these gout studies, other relevant studies, abstracts (which include the main conclusions), copy the name of the gout study, other study or abstract into an Internet search box and press Enter on your keyboard.
(1) Abstract. Effect of insulin on uric acid excretion in humans. A. Quinones Galvan, A. Natali, S. Baldi, S. Frascerra, G. Sanna, D. Ciociaro and E. Ferrannini, Metabolism Unit, University of Pisa, Italy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 268: E1-E5, 1995;
(2) Abstract. Relationship Between Resistance to Insulin-Mediated Glucose Uptake, Urinary Uric Acid Clearance, and Plasma Uric Acid Concentration. Francesco Facchini, MD; Y.-D. Ida Chen, PhD; Clarie B. Hollenbeck, PhD; Gerald M. Reaven, MD JAMA. 1991;266(21):3008-3011.
(3) Abstract. Effect of insulin on renal sodium and uric acid handling in essential hypertension. Elza Muscelli, Andrea Natali, Stefano Bianchi, Roberto Bigazzi1, Alfredo Quiñones Galvan, Anna Maria Sironi, Silvia Frascerra, Demetrio Ciociaro and Ele Ferrannini Am J Hypertens (1996) 9, 746–752;
(4) Abstract. Prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in patients with gouty arthritis.Yoo HG, Lee SI, Chae HJ, Park SJ, Lee YC, Yoo WH. Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, 02881, USA. Rheumatol Int. 2009 Dec 20.
(5) Abstract.The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Gout: A Multicenter Study. Young Hee Rho, Seong Jae Choi,Young Ho Lee, Jong Dae Ji,Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Seung-hie Chung, Chae-Gi Kim,Jung-Yoon Choe, Sung Won Lee,Won Tae Chung, Gwan Gyu Song. J Korean Med Sci 2005; 20: 1029-33
(6) Abstract. Do high carbohydrate diets prevent the development or attenuate the manifestations (or both) of syndrome X? A viewpoint strongly against. Reaven G.M. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1997 Feb;8(1):23-7.(Note: Syndrome X is another name for the Metabolic Syndrome).
(7) Purine-Rich Foods, Dairy and Protein Intake, and the Risk of Gout in Men.Hyon K. Choi, M.D., Dr.P.H., Karen Atkinson, M.D., M.P.H.,Elizabeth W. Karlson, M.D., Walter Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H.,and Gary Curhan, M.D., Sc.D.New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350:1093-103.
(8) Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study.P H Dessein, E A Shipton, A E Stanwix, B I Joffe, J Ramokgadi. Ann Rheum Dis 2000 59: 539-543.
(9) Effect of Weight Reduction on Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Obese Patients. Hye Soon Park, Su Jung Sim, Jung Yul Park J Korean Med Sci 2004; 19: 202-8
(10) Abstract. Effect of weight-loss on plasma and urinary levels of uric acid. A. Nicholls & J.T. Scott.The Lancet 1972 2: 1223-1224.
(11) Uric Acid and the Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Women and Men. Xuemei Sui, MD, Timothy S. Church, MD, PhD, Rebecca A. Meriwether, MD, Felipe Lobelo, MD, and Steven N.Blair, PED, Metabolism. 2008 June ; 57(6): 845–852.
(12) Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. Eric C Westman, Richard D Feinman, John C Mavropoulos, Mary C Vernon, Jeff S Volek, James A Wortman, William S Yancy, and Stephen D Phinney Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:276–84.
(13) Abstract. Acid-base analysis of individuals following two weight loss diets.Yancy W.S. Jr, Olsen M.K, Dudley T, Westman E.C.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;61(12):1416-22. Epub 2007 Feb 14.
(14) Abstract. Effect of short-term ketogenic diet on redox status of human blood.Nazarewicz RR, Ziolkowski W, Vaccaro PS, Ghafourifar P.Rejuvenation Res.2007 Dec;10(4):435-40.
(15) A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity.Frederick F. Samaha, M.D., Nayyar Iqbal, M.D., Prakash Seshadri, M.D., Kathryn L. Chicano, C.R.N.P., Denise A. Daily, R.D., Joyce McGrory, C.R.N.P., Terrence Williams, B.S., Monica Williams, B.S., Edward J. Gracely, Ph.D and Linda Stern, M.D.New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348:2074-81.
(16) Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels,and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Guenther Boden, MD; Karin Sargrad, MS, RD, CDE; Carol Homko, PhD, RN, CDE; Maria Mozzoli, BS; and T. Peter Stein, PhD. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:403-411.
(17) A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes.William S Yancy Jr, Marjorie Foy, Allison M Chalecki, Mary C Vernon and Eric C Westman.<i>Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2:34
(18) Abstract. Effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate dieting on plasma lipoproteins and body weight.Larosa JC, Fry AG, Muesing R, Rosing DR.J.Am Diet Assoc 1980;77:264-70.
(19) Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. James W.Krieger, Harry S.Sitren, Michael J.Daniels and Bobbi Langkamp-Henken. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:260-74.
(20) Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs Low-Fat Diets on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Alain J. Nordmann, MD, MSc; Abigail Nordmann, BS; Matthias Briel, MD; Ulrich Keller, MD;William S. Yancy, Jr, MD, MSH; Bonnie J. Brehm, PhD; Heiner C. Bucher, MD, MPH Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:285-293
(21) Abstract.Relationship between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. Li-ying Chen, Wen-hua Zhu, Zhou-wen Chen, Hong-lei Dai, Jing-jing Ren, Jian-hua Chen, Lei-qian Chen, and Li-zheng Fang.<i>Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 2007 8(8):593-598
(22) Abstract. The uricosuric action of protein in man. Matzkies F, Berg G, Mädl H.Adv Exp Med Biol.1980;122A:227-31.
(23) Intake of Purine-Rich Foods, Protein, and Dairy Products and Relationship to Serum Levels of Uric Acid The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Hyon K. Choi, Simin Liu, and Gary Curhan. Arthritis and Rheumatism, Vol. 52, No. 1, January 2005, pp 283–289
(24) Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Santos FL, Estebes SS, da Costa Pereira A, Yancy WS jr, Nunes JP. Obesity Reviews 2012 Nov;13(11): 1048-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01021.x. Epub 2012 Aug 21.
Quoted nutritional values on the gout and the Atkins diet pages are taken from the USDA's (U.S. Dept.of Agriculture) National Nutrient Database.
Robert Atkins MD SuperEnergy diet, Crown Publishers Inc., New York 1977.
Robert Atkins MD New Diet Revolution, British edition, Ebury Press, London 1999.
Robert Atkins MD New Diet Revolution, U.S.edition, M.Evans and Company Inc., New York 2002.
William Banting Letter on Corpulence, 4th edition, Harrison, London 1869.
Michael R. Eades M.D., Mary Dan Eades M.D., (M.D.Eades M.D.) ! Protein Power, Warner Books, New York 1996.
Michael R. Eades M.D., Mary Dan Eades M.D., (M.D.Eades M.D.) ! The Protein Power Lifeplan, Warner Books, New York 2000.
Barry Sears PhD, Enter The Zone, HarperCollins, New York, 1995.
Dr.Eric Westman, Dr.Stephen Phinney, and Dr. Jeff Volek. The New Atkins For A New You. The Fireside Division of Simon & Schuster Inc., New York 2010.
John Yudkin, Pure, White and Deadly, Penguin Group (USA), New York. 2012 (updated from 1972 and 1986 editions). With an introduction by Robert H.Lustig MD.
Referenced websites are linked to in the text.
Related Atkins and gout pages.